Abstracts and bios 3

SESSION 5&6
a non-occidentalist west: learning from theories outside the canon

Burcu Yigit Turan & Mia Ågren

White landscapes: tracing socio-spatial epistemologies of whiteness in contemporary Swedish planning

Despite of historical, economic, spatial and legislative nuances, the parallels regarding socio-spatial segregation, and the ways of problematization of and interventions to socio-spatial segregation and inequalities in the U.S./North America and Sweden are immense. Socio-spatial segregation, which is one of the most important manifestation of social injustice, racialization of urban landscapes, and the role of white socio-spatial epistemology in reproduction of spatial, environmental injustices have been important subjects of research in different fields in the U.S. (See Lipsitz 2007; Pulido 2000). However, influence of white socio-spatial epistemology on urban planning and design, particularly on the formation of urban landscapes and related inequalities is undertheorized (see Goetz et al. 2020). Recently, urban planning scholarship has also started to embrace studies on white socio-spatial epistemology in order to understand the complicity of planning scholarship and practice in (re)production of socio-spatial and environmental injustices, and to find ways to better address the injustices in planning practices (see Goetz, et al. 2020; Brand 2018; Bate et al. 2018; Johnson 2018). Although, studies of whiteness, racism and coloniality have a place in social, cultural studies (see Mulinari 2007), cultural geography (see Pred 2000; Molina 2019) in Sweden, there is a deep silence regarding the complicity of urban planning and landscape scholarship and practice in racialization of space/spatialization of race and (re)production of segregation and socio-spatial, environmental injustices.

Inspired by the emerging anti-essentialist, relational, anti-subordinate, feminist theoretical lenses, methodologies discourses in planning and landscape scholarship (Anguelovski et al. 2020; Dwyer & Jones, 2000; Goetz, et al. 2020; Jon, 2020), we aim to reveal the white socio-spatial epistemology and whiteness in Swedish urban planning and landscape scholarship and practices, consequently to understand the role of planning and design in (re)production and maintenance of environmental injustices. We will be particularly exploring the nature of white spatial epistemology and imaginary, and tacit power of whiteness in Swedish urban planning playing role in racialization of urban landscapes and production of environmental injustices. We will relationally look at temporal and segmented development visions and interventions taken for landscapes of white and non-white groups in Uppsala, and how these visions and interventions are naturalized and rationalized within planning language and narratives. Through such study, we would like address the epistemological injustice in Swedish scholarship. Moreover, we aim for furthering the ideas for non-white, non-supremacist, non-patriarchal, non-heteronormative landscape imaginations, planning languages, theories, methodologies and pedagogies.

References
Anguelovski, Isabelle, Anna Livia Brand, James J. T. Connolly, Esteve Corbera, Panagiota Kotsila, Justin Steil, Melissa Garcia-Lamarca, et al. 2020. “Expanding the Boundaries of Justice in Urban Greening Scholarship: Toward an Emancipatory, Antisubordination, Intersectional, and Relational Approach.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 110 (6): 1743–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2020.1740579.
Brand, Anna Livia. 2018. Say Its Name-Planning Is the White Spatial Imaginary, or Reading McKittrick and Woods as Planning Text. Planning Theory & Practice 19 (2): 254–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2018.1456816.
Dwyer, Owen J., and John Paul Jones III. 2010. “White Socio-Spatial Epistemology.” Social & Cultural Geography, November. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649360020010211.
Goetz, Edward G., Rashad A. Williams, and Anthony Damiano. 2020. “Whiteness and Urban Planning.” Journal of the American Planning Association 86 (2): 142–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2019.1693907.
Jon, Ihnji. 2020. “Reframing Postmodern Planning with Feminist Social Theory: Toward ‘Anti-Essentialist Norms.’” Planning Theory 19 (2): 147–71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095219851214.
Lipsitz, G. 2007. “The Racialization of Space and the Spatialization of Race: Theorizing the Hidden Architecture of Landscape.” Landscape Journal 26 (1): 10–23. https://doi.org/10.3368/lj.26.1.10.
Pred, Allan. 2000. Even in Sweden: Racisms, Racialized Spaces, and the Popular Geographical Imagination. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Pulido, Laura. 2000. “Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90 (1): 12–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00182.

Eija Meriläinen

Gendering planetary urbanisation in Northern Finland

Planetary urbanisation refers to (capitalist) urbanisation as a process engulfing the whole of society, rather than just cities (Brenner & Schmidt 2014). Recognizing dominant patterns of capitalist urbanisation, from cities facilitating the meeting of labour and capital to infrastructure providing a spatial fix to tie up surplus value, can provide helpful insights across contexts (e.g. Harvey 1978). Yet frameworks modelled with large cities of the Centre in mind are not only problematic when applied to Global South (Parnell & Robinson 2012), but they also describe poorly the peripheries of the Global North. Furthermore, the planetary urbanization debate has been criticized for its totalizing narrative uprooted from lived experiences, as well as for its omissions of femist and queer thinking (McLean 2018).

To address some of the critiques, this paper approaches the planetary urbanisation debate through a gender lense, with a positionality rooted in the semi-peripheral regions of Northern Finland. The research asks how urbanisation has re-configured the Arctic semi-peripheral space, and how gender factors in. The paper begins by bringing together the critical work on capitalist planetary urbanization with scholarship on capitalism’s (violent) transformation of gender relations (Federici 2017). Compounding the two critical approaches sheds light on how the capitalist urbanisation has drawn and redrawn the boundaries between the spheres of production and social reproduction, home and society, the public and private spaces. This metanarrative on gendered planetary urbanization is subsequently reflected from the perspective of the semi-peripheries of the Arctic, with an emphasis on Finland in the “Old North” (Keskitalo 2019).

By European standards Northern Finland was late to industrialize and urbanize. For instance, between 1910-1930 around 5% of the population of Finnish Lapland were living in urban settlements (Aatsinki 2008). The recent nature of Finnish industrialization also meant that the realms of work and domesticity that were interconnected in the agrarian society were wrangled apart only recently, and — much to the embarrassment of the initial architects of the welfare state — Finnish women never flocked to become housewives (Rämö & Kaarenoja 2020). Thus, the perspective of Northern Finnish provides a fascinating standpoint to either dislocate, or provincialize, the metanarrative of gendered planetary urbanization.

At this stage the paper remains conceptual, reviewing the debate on gendered planetary urbanization through an Arctic standpoint. However, the intention is to revise the paper after conducting approximately 10 in-depth interviews with women in Northern Finland. Key themes that are likely to emerge as specificities of, or challenges to, the gendered planetary urbanisation narrative are likely to stem from female-dominated urban migration, gender-based segregation of industries, the role of seasonality in defining the boundaries between public and private spaces, the role of cottages and second homes in shaping understandings of (re)production. Particular attention is paid on the configurations of infrastructure investment, from roads facilitating high intensity forestry to internet cables to enable telecommuting from cottages. The key question, reiterated, is how urbanisation has re-configured the Arctic semi-peripheral space, and how gender factors in.

REFERENCE
Aatsinki, U. (2009). Tukkiliikkeestä kommunismiin. Lapin työväenliikkeen radikalisoituminen ennen ja jälkeen 1918. Tampere University Press.

Brenner, N., & Schmid, C. (2014). The ‘Urban Age’ in Question. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(3), 731–755.

Keskitalo, E. C. H. (2019). The Politics of Arctic Resources: Change and Continuity in the ‘Old North’ of Northern Europe. Routledge.

Federici, S. (2017). Caliban And The Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation (Illustrated edition). Autonomedia.

Harvey, D. (1978). The urban process under capitalism: A framework for analysis. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2(1–4), 101–131.

McLean, H. (2018). In praise of chaotic research pathways: A feminist response to planetary urbanization. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(3), 547–555.

Parnell, S., & Robinson, J. (2012). (Re)theorizing Cities from the Global South: Looking Beyond Neoliberalism. Urban Geography, 33(4), 593–617.

Rämö, A., & Kaarenoja, V. (2020). Tytöt – Suomalaisen tasa-arvon perusteet. Siltala.

Rachel Mc Ardle

Intersectional Climate Urbanism: the inclusion of Irish Traveller voices

Experiences of climate change are diverse, influenced by many socio-economic, spatial, and physical factors. This has led academics and activists to call for climate policies and practices that affirm climate justice; ensuring that they cater for all axes of identity rather than reinforcing existing systemic inequalities. Climate justice often focuses on the scale of urban- but what about non-dominant narratives within climate urbanism? How can we learn about and use methodologies that have worked with indigenous and marginalised groups and apply them in a variety of contexts? Building on the work of academics, artists, and activists working with indigenous communities, this ongoing research takes a feminist intersectional approach to examine the perspectives of, and actions in relation to, climate change amongst a marginalised group in Irish society, Irish Travellers. This research challenges conventional discourses of Irish Travellers as contributors to, or ambivalent actors within, the current climate context. It explores new concepts and strategies for framing climate justice for Irish Traveller communities who often experience economic and social exclusion. Lessons from climate action in one marginalised group can enable broader conceptualisations of concepts such as climate justice and climate urbanism. This research aims to use qualitative methods – including policy analysis, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and focus groups – to explore the lived realities of Irish Travellers and their relation to climate change and climate action, asking how they are engaging with, resisting, and living through what was acknowledged as a climate emergency by the Irish government in 2019. This will broaden understandings of climate urbanism. The research will also explore the extent to which these lived experiences of climate change are constructed and perpetuated through forms of intersectional oppression and structural power.

Magdalena Novoa

Insurgent Heritage: Memory, place-based care and cultural citizenships

Planetary urbanisation refers to (capitalist) urbanisation as a process engulfing the whole of society, rather than just cities (Brenner & Schmidt 2014). Recognizing dominant patterns of capitalist urbanisation, from cities facilitating the meeting of labour and capital to infrastructure providing a spatial fix to tie up surplus value, can provide helpful insights across contexts (e.g. Harvey 1978). Yet frameworks modelled with large cities of the Centre in mind are not only problematic when applied to Global South (Parnell & Robinson 2012), but they also describe poorly the peripheries of the Global North. Furthermore, the planetary urbanization debate has been criticized for its totalizing narrative uprooted from lived experiences, as well as for its omissions of femist and queer thinking (McLean 2018).

To address some of the critiques, this paper approaches the planetary urbanisation debate through a gender lense, with a positionality rooted in the semi-peripheral regions of Northern Finland. The research asks how urbanisation has re-configured the Arctic semi-peripheral space, and how gender factors in. The paper begins by bringing together the critical work on capitalist planetary urbanization with scholarship on capitalism’s (violent) transformation of gender relations (Federici 2017). Compounding the two critical approaches sheds light on how the capitalist urbanisation has drawn and redrawn the boundaries between the spheres of production and social reproduction, home and society, the public and private spaces. This metanarrative on gendered planetary urbanization is subsequently reflected from the perspective of the semi-peripheries of the Arctic, with an emphasis on Finland in the “Old North” (Keskitalo 2019).

By European standards Northern Finland was late to industrialize and urbanize. For instance, between 1910-1930 around 5% of the population of Finnish Lapland were living in urban settlements (Aatsinki 2008). The recent nature of Finnish industrialization also meant that the realms of work and domesticity that were interconnected in the agrarian society were wrangled apart only recently, and — much to the embarrassment of the initial architects of the welfare state — Finnish women never flocked to become housewives (Rämö & Kaarenoja 2020). Thus, the perspective of Northern Finnish provides a fascinating standpoint to either dislocate, or provincialize, the metanarrative of gendered planetary urbanization.

At this stage the paper remains conceptual, reviewing the debate on gendered planetary urbanization through an Arctic standpoint. However, the intention is to revise the paper after conducting approximately 10 in-depth interviews with women in Northern Finland. Key themes that are likely to emerge as specificities of, or challenges to, the gendered planetary urbanisation narrative are likely to stem from female-dominated urban migration, gender-based segregation of industries, the role of seasonality in defining the boundaries between public and private spaces, the role of cottages and second homes in shaping understandings of (re)production. Particular attention is paid on the configurations of infrastructure investment, from roads facilitating high intensity forestry to internet cables to enable telecommuting from cottages. The key question, reiterated, is how urbanisation has re-configured the Arctic semi-peripheral space, and how gender factors in.

REFERENCE
Aatsinki, U. (2009). Tukkiliikkeestä kommunismiin. Lapin työväenliikkeen radikalisoituminen ennen ja jälkeen 1918. Tampere University Press.
Brenner, N., & Schmid, C. (2014). The ‘Urban Age’ in Question. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(3), 731–755.
Keskitalo, E. C. H. (2019). The Politics of Arctic Resources: Change and Continuity in the ‘Old North’ of Northern Europe. Routledge.
Federici, S. (2017). Caliban And The Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation (Illustrated edition). Autonomedia.
Harvey, D. (1978). The urban process under capitalism: A framework for analysis. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2(1–4), 101–131.
McLean, H. (2018). In praise of chaotic research pathways: A feminist response to planetary urbanization. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 36(3), 547–555.
Parnell, S., & Robinson, J. (2012). (Re)theorizing Cities from the Global South: Looking Beyond Neoliberalism. Urban Geography, 33(4), 593–617.
Rämö, A., & Kaarenoja, V. (2020). Tytöt – Suomalaisen tasa-arvon perusteet. Siltala.